Vehicle or Marine 400V Lithium NMC Battery 44.3kWh Capacity
This Battery Array will utilize 16 x 50.4V Modules. 8 Modules in Series and the string in parallel for a total of 44,320 Wh Capacity.
Weight is 240kgs. Dimension is a nominal 2080 L x 344 W x 225 H. This form factor can be changed.
This battery is a matched energy storage module for:
- SPOCK 4,000W Bi-Directional 12V (Alternator and/or Solar) to 400V DC to DC
- 7,000W Bi-directional 400V DC to 240V AC Inverter Charger
Together these 3 components for a matched set from replenishment to AC power with bi-directional functionality.
Each module comprizes 18650 2.6Ah NCM cell in a 14S22P cell configuration to build a single battery module. The nominal voltage is 50.4V and the capacity is 55AHr or 2770WHr. This battery module can be connected together in series and parallel configurations to meet the voltage and power needs of the application.
The primary protection is controlled by a Battery Management Unit (BMU) to connect/disconnect the battery modules with the power train. The BMU communicates with these modules to ensure they work properly in the whole hybrid or electric vehicle power train.
The BMU supports CANbus communication.
Comments per Single Battery Module
One Battery module
55AHr or 2770WHr
260 mm x 172mm x 225 mm
Nominal module voltage
Maximum module voltage
58.1V(single cell voltage is 4.15V)
Minimum module voltage
Nominal load current
100A max. continuous current @ 23° C
Peak load current
150A max for 30 sec @ 23° C
The BMU has the capability to turn off the charger or open the main contactor. The battery module itself does not have any switch to disconnect the charger.
The intra-module balancing circuitry is used to compensate slight capacity imbalance among the eight cell banks within a battery module.
The inter-module balancing circuitry is used to compensate slight capacity imbalance between different battery modules in series connection.
State of Charge Measurement
Individual cell voltage and charge/discharge current will be used to monitor the state of charge (SOC) of the battery module. The estimated capacity used for the calculations will be adjusted to meet the capacity of the lowest capacity cell bank when the pack is fully cycled. The state of charge will be adjusted for normal self discharge of the pack when the unit is not on charge.
Communications will be used to communicate with the Battery Management Unit (BMU) or connection to other battery Modules.
CANbus Communication connection from Downstream battery module.
Communications insulation voltage rating
5000V rms for 1 minute
A Dual LED on module to indicate working status. One is green and the other one is red. Blinking of the green LED indicates that the module is working properly. Blinking of the red LED indicates that the module has failure and needs service.
An inter-module balancing circuit is present and can be activated when a slight imbalance between individual modules is detected by the external BMU.
The charger should also have a voltage limit, which will be activated when the battery modules are charged to close to full and the charge current is very small.
The external BMU is to open the main contactor when the following event occurred:
1. When a battery module is charged to full;
2. When a cell voltage in the series string exceeds 4.15V;
3. When cell surface temperature of any module exceeds 60ºC.
When a cell voltage in the series string fall below 3.0V then the BMU open the main contactor.
Battery Pack Microprocessor
The Battery Module will include a TI microprocessor MSP430F247. The A/D inputs will be used to monitor individual cell voltages, charge/discharge current and temperature measurements. Since the processor has limited A/D ports, multiplexers are used to switch among voltage and temperature sensors for measurement. The microprocessor outputs are used to control cell balance circuits and RS-485 communications to the BMU.
Battery Pack Firmware
The Battery module microprocessor shall be programmed before the module is sealed. Programming port is available to update the firmware after the battery module is sealed. The firmware update procedure will be detailed in the Configuration Guide.
Current range from -300A (charging) to +300A (discharging) within the accuracy of +/-1A.
Voltage measurements should be accurate within 20mV per cell throughout the full operating temperature range.
Cell temperatures will be measured at 4 positions on the cell surface using NTC, the two temperature sensor measure positive and negative terminal, three NTC on the PCBA to monitor the temperature of the PCB.
State of Charge Monitoring
State-of-charge (SOC) will be monitored via individual cell voltage measurements and the charge/discharge current. The SOC accuracy shall meet the accuracy listed below:
Accuracy of SOC to be
0 – 20% SOC: 5% accuracy (voltage-temperature compensated)
20% - 80% SOC: 10% accuracy (coulomb counting)
80% - 100% SOC: 5% accuracy
Call Balance Adjustment
The inter-module balancing is to compensate the capacity imbalance between multiple battery modules in a given system.
The intra-module balancing is to compensate the capacity imbalance among cell banks within a battery module. In this case the balancing load shunts current across the cell bank.
Battery Fault Indication
A dual LED is used to indicate the working status on the top side of the plastic enclosure. When the module works properly and connected to a BMU, a green LED is illuminated. To reduce leakage current, it will be lighted periodically and the duty cycle can be small (5 seconds per cycle; each cycle includes 1 pulse for 0.3 second). In case the module experiences a critical error and can no longer work properly, a red LED is illuminated. The red LED is illuminated in patterns.
Circuit Self Discharge Rates
The circuit within the battery module will have a self discharge rate:
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Red LED illumination pattern
Cell voltage is greater than 4.5V
5 seconds per cycle; each cycle includes 1 pulse for 0.3 second
Cell voltage stays at 0V while charging
5 seconds per cycle; each cycle includes 2 pulses for 0.3 second each; and 0.3 second interval between pulses
Cell temperature is greater than 65ºC
5 seconds per cycle; each cycle includes 3 pulses for 0.3 second each; and 0.3 second interval between pulses
PCBA temperature is greater than 130ºC
5 seconds per cycle; each cycle includes 4 pulses for 0.3 second each; and 0.3 second interval between pulses
shipping mode (Not connected with other battery modules and BMU)
Less than 1.0mA
Working mode (Connected with other battery modules and BMU), charging or driving
Less than 6.0mA
Sleep mode (Cell voltages are below discharge cut-off voltage, or the vehicle is not ignited.)
Less than 700 µA
The battery module shall be fully functional from -20 to 50oC temperature. However, as soon as the cell surface temperature is increased to 55oC, the maximum charge/discharge current will be derated to TBD Amps. As soon as the cell surface temperature is increased to 60 oC, the maximum charge/discharge current should be 0 Amp.
Non-operating and Suspend
The battery module shall be able to withstand temperatures from -20 to 60oC with no cosmetic damage. The unit shall be fully functional after returning to the operating temperature range. The unit shall be able to withstand a temperature cycle from 25℃ to 60℃ (at a rate of 1℃ rise or fall per minute) from an Operational state.
The battery module shall be fully functional from 10% to 95% relative humidity, condensing, across the operating temperature range.
The battery module shall be fully functional from 0 to 12,000 feet (14.7 to 10.1 psa) across the operating temperature range.
The battery module shall be able to withstand altitudes from 0 to 40,000 feet across the non-operating temperature range with no cosmetic damage. The unit shall be fully functional after returning to the operating altitude.
The battery module will meet the vibration test requirements of DIN VG 96 924 section 5.1.4.
The test shall be carried out in the three main axes of the battery. Nevertheless each battery shall only be subjected to vibration stress in one main Axis. The module shall be subjected to vibration cycles in the relevant main axis for 3 hours with the following values:
Frequency cycle: 5 Hz 22 Hz 500 Hz22Hz5 Hz
Amplitude in the frequency range: 5 bis 22 Hz: ±2, 5mm
Acceleration in the frequency range: 22 bis 500 Hz: 50m/s2
Duration of a cycle: 15 minutes
The vibrations shall be harmonic. The frequency shall begin at the lower range limit from which point they should be increased continuously up to the limit of the upper range and then decreased continuously back to the lower range limit.
The vibration must be measured at the point where the vibration is transmitted to the test item. The values measured may deviate by up to 10% from those specified.
Following subjection to the vibration test the battery shall be checked for signs of visible damage.
There shall be no visible Evidence of material damage. Failure to meet the requirements shall be considered a major defect.
The battery module will meet the shock test requirements of DIN VG 96 924 section 5.1.5.
The shock values determined on execution of the test may vary by to 20% from those specified. Following subjection to the shock test the battery shall be checked for sings of visible damage.
There shall no visible evidence of material damage. Failure to meet the Requirements shall be considered a major defect.
The battery module will meet the sealing test requirements of DIN VG 96 924 section 5.1.6.
One electrode of 6 to 10KV high voltage supply shall be connected to one terminal of the battery. The other electrode of the high voltage supply shall be connected to the external surface of the Battery container excluding the communication port, the programming port and the LEDs.
There shall be no flash-over. A flash-over at a safety device shall not be considered a defect. Failure to the requirement shall be considered major defect.
Elasticity of the battery
The battery module will meet the elasticity test requirements of DIN VG 96 924 section 5.1.9.
The battery shall be subjected to shocks produce by a (900±20) g steel ball and applied to the contact area by means of the testing device illustrated in Figure 4. One shock shall be applied to each of the sidewalls of the cells.
During the tests the battery shall be placed on an even base in from of a rigid wall.
Following the shock stress the battery shall be tested using high voltage between 6 and to 10kv to establish whether leakages have occurred as a result of shock.
There shall be no evidence of leakage caused by the test.
Failure to meet the requirements shall be considered a major defect.
Stress Relief Test
The battery module shall meet the requirements of EN60950 Stress Relief Test (4.2.1 and 4.2.7). One module is placed in a circulating air oven at a temperature 10K higher than the maximum temperature observed on the enclosure under nominal load condition, but not less than 70°C, for a period of 7h, then permitted to cool to room temperature. After the test, it shall show no signs of interference with the operation of safety features such as thermal cut-outs, over-current protection devices or interlocks. Damage to finish, cracks, dents and chips are disregarded if they do not adversely affect safety.
The battery module shall pass water intrusion requirements in accordance to IEC 60529, IP class 56.
The battery pack shall pass sand/dust intrusion requirements in accordance to IEC 60529, IP class 56.
Product must comply with requirements of UN recommendations on transport of Lithium Batteries.
Requirement when being installed in vehicles
Product must comply with Regulation No. 100 of United Nations when it is installed into an electrical or hybrid vehicle.
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